Does Leading The Global Lithium Battery Market Mean That China Has Mastered The Core Technology (1)

Ngentsasa ye-21 ka-Epreli 2014, i-musk i-parachuted e-Beijing Qiaofu Fangcao ngenqwelo-moya yabucala kwaye yaya kwiSebe lezesayensi kunye neteknoloji yaseChina kwindawo yokuqala yokumisa ukuhlola ikamva lokungena kukaTesla eChina.I-Ofisi yoMphathiswa wesayensi kunye neteknoloji isoloko ikhuthaza uTesla, kodwa ngeli xesha i-musk yavala umnyango kwaye yafumana impendulo elandelayo: I-China iqwalasela ukuguqulwa kwerhafu yezithuthi zombane.Phambi kokuqukunjelwa kohlaziyo, iimodeli kusafuneka zihlawule umrhumo wama-25% njengezithuthi zesiqhelo.

Ke i-musk iceba "ukukhwaza" ngengqungquthela ye-geek Park innovators.Kwiholo elikhulu lekhonsathi yaseZhongshan, uYang Yuanqing, uZhou Hongyi, uZhang Yiming nabanye baye bahlala eqongeni.Kwaye i-musk yalinda emva kweqonga, yakhupha ifowuni yakhe kwaye yathumela i-tweet.Wathi xa kukhala umculo wanyathela eqongeni, echwayita eqhwaba izandla.Kodwa xa ebuyela e-United States, wathumela kwi-tweet kwaye wakhalaza: "E-China, sifana nosana olukhasayo."

Ukusukela ngoko, uTesla sele ekwicala lokutshona kangangezihlandlo ezininzi njengoko imarike idla ngokuba yi-bearish kwaye ingxaki ye-dystocia ikhokelele kumjikelo wesiqingatha sonyaka wokuqokelela abathengi.Ngenxa yoko, i-musk yawa kwaye yatshaya nentsangu live, ilala kumzi-mveliso waseCalifornia yonke imihla ukujonga inkqubela.Eyona ndlela yokusombulula ingxaki yesikhundla kukwakha iifektri ezinkulu eTshayina.Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, u-musk wakhala kwintetho yakhe eHong Kong: kubathengi baseTshayina, wade wafunda ukusebenzisa i-wechat.

 

Ixesha liyabhabha.Nge-7 kaJanuwari ka-2020, i-musk yeza eShanghai kwakhona yazisa ibhetshi yokuqala yemodeli yasekhaya ezintathu izitshixo kubanini beemoto zaseTshayina kumzi-mveliso weTesla Shanghai Super.Amazwi akhe okuqala ayesithi: Enkosi kurhulumente waseTshayina.Wayenomdaniso wokukhuhla umqolo kwalapho.Ukususela ngoko, ngokunciphisa ixabiso elibukhali kwimodeli yasekhaya ye-3, abantu abaninzi ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwishishini batsho ngokukrakra: ukuphela kwezithuthi zamandla amatsha eChina kuza.

Nangona kunjalo, kulo nyaka uphelileyo, uTesla uye wafumana iziganeko ezinkulu ze-rollover, kubandakanywa ukutsha kwebhetri ngokukhawuleza, injini ngaphandle kolawulo, i-skylight indiza, njl njl. Kwaye isimo sengqondo sikaTesla siye saba "nengqiqo" okanye sinekratshi.Kungekudala, ngenxa yokungaphumeleli kwamandla eemoto ezintsha, uTesla ugxekwa ngamajelo aphakathi.Ngokwentelekiso, ingxaki yokuncipha kwebhetri yeTesla ixhaphake kakhulu, abanini beemoto kwi-Intanethi bagxeka ilizwi emva komnye.

Ngenxa yoku, amaziko karhulumente athabatha amanyathelo ngokusemthethweni.Kutshanje, uLawulo Jikelele lolawulo lwemarike kunye namanye amasebe amahlanu udliwano-ndlebe noTesla, nto leyo ebandakanya ikakhulu iingxaki ezifana nokukhawulezisa okungaqhelekanga, umlilo webhetri, ukuphuculwa kwemoto ekude, njl.njl Njengoko sonke siyazi, iibhetri ze-lithium iron phosphate zasekhaya zisetyenziswa ngokusisiseko kwimodeli yasekhaya 3 .

Ibaluleke kangakanani ibhetri ye-lithium?Ukujonga emva kwindlela yophuhliso lwemizi-mveliso, ngaba iTshayina iyabubamba ngenene ubuchwephesha obungundoqo?Indlela yokuphumelela impumelelo?

 

1/ Isixhobo esibalulekileyo samaxesha

 Does Leading The Global Lithium Battery Market Mean That China Has Mastered The Core Technology (2)

Ngenkulungwane yama-20, uluntu luye lwavelisa ubutyebi obuninzi ngaphezu komlinganiselo weminyaka engama-2000 yangaphambili.Phakathi kwazo, inzululwazi nobugcisa bunokuthathwa njengamandla athatha isigqibo ekukhuthazeni impucuko yehlabathi nophuhliso loqoqosho.Kule minyaka ilikhulu idluleyo, izinto ezivelisiweyo zenzululwazi nezobuchwepheshe ezidalwe ngabantu ziqaqambe njengeenkwenkwezi, yaye ezimbini kuzo ziqondwa njengezinempembelelo enkulu kwinkqubo yembali.Eyokuqala yi-transistors, ngaphandle kwayo bekungekho iikhompyutha;okwesibini iibhetri ze-lithium-ion, ngaphandle kokuba ihlabathi lingayi kucingelwa.

Namhlanje, iibhetri ze-lithium zisetyenziswe kwiibhiliyoni zeefowuni eziphathwayo, ii-laptops kunye nezinye iimveliso zombane minyaka le, kunye nezigidi zeenqwelo zamandla amatsha, kunye nazo zonke izixhobo eziphathwayo emhlabeni ezifuna ukutshaja.Ukongeza, ngokufika kwenguqu entsha yemoto yamandla kunye nokudalwa kwezixhobo ezininzi eziphathwayo, imboni yebhetri ye-lithium iya kuba nekamva eliqaqambileyo.Ngokomzekelo, ixabiso lemveliso yonyaka yeeseli zebhetri ye-lithium yodwa ifikelele kwi-yuan ye-200 yeebhiliyoni, kwaye ikamva lisondele kwikona.

Izicwangciso kunye neeshedyuli zokupheliswa kwexesha elizayo kwezithuthi zamafutha eziqulunqwe ngamazwe ahlukeneyo ehlabathi nazo ziya kuba "yi-icing on the cake".Owokuqala yiNorway ngo-2025, kunye ne-United States, iJapan kunye namazwe amaninzi aseYurophu malunga ne-2035. I-China ayinalo isicwangciso sexesha esicacileyo.Ukuba akukho teknoloji entsha kwixesha elizayo, imboni yebhetri ye-lithium iya kuqhubeka ikhula amashumi eminyaka.Kunokuthiwa ukuba ngubani ophethe iteknoloji engundoqo ye-lithium ibhetri ithetha ukuba nentonga yokulawula ishishini.

 

Amazwe aseNtshona Yurophu amisela ucwangciso lwamaxesha okuphelisa iimoto zamafutha

Ukutyhubela iminyaka, iYurophu kunye ne-United States, i-China, iJapan kunye ne-South Korea ziye zaqalisa ukhuphiswano oluqatha kwaye zide ziqhubele phambili kwintsimi yeebhetri ze-lithium, ezibandakanya izazinzulu ezininzi ezidumileyo, iiyunivesithi ezininzi eziphezulu kunye namaziko ophando, kunye nezigebenga kunye ne-capital consortia. amashishini epetroleum, ekhemikhali, eemoto, ezenzululwazi kunye nobuchwepheshe.Ngubani na oya kucinga ukuba indlela yophuhliso yoshishino lwebhetri ye-lithium yehlabathi yayifana ne-semiconductor: yavela eYurophu nase-United States, yomelele kuneJapan kunye ne-South Korea, kwaye ekugqibeleni yalawulwa yi-China.

Kwiminyaka yee-1970 kunye nee-1980, iteknoloji yebhetri ye-lithium yavela eYurophu naseMelika.Emva kwexesha, abantu baseMelika ngokulandelelana benza i-lithium cobalt oxide, i-lithium manganese oxide kunye neebhetri ze-lithium iron phosphate, ezikhokele kwishishini.Ngo-1991, iJapan yaba yeyokuqala ukwenza iibhetri ze-lithium-ion, kodwa ke imarike yaqhubeka iyancipha.UMzantsi Korea, kwelinye icala, uthembele kurhulumente ukuba awuqhubele phambili.Ngelo xesha, kunye nenkxaso eqinile karhulumente, i-China yenze ishishini lebhetri ye-lithium libe ngowokuqala kwihlabathi ngenyathelo.

Ekuguqukeni koshishino lwebhetri ye-lithium, iYurophu, iMelika kunye neJapan ziye zadlala indima ebalulekileyo ekukhuthazeni iteknoloji.Ngo-2019, iBhaso leNobel kwichemistry lanikezelwa kwizazinzulu zaseMelika uJohn goodinaf, uStanley whitingham kunye nesazinzulu saseJapan uYoshino ekuthatheni ingqalelo igalelo labo kuphando nakuphuhliso lweebhetri ze-lithium-ion.Ekubeni izazinzulu zase-United States naseJapan ziphumelele ibhaso likaNobel, ngaba iTshayina inokukhokela ngokwenene kubuchwephesha obuphambili beebhetri ze-lithium?

 

2/ Imbeleko yebhetri ye-lithium 

Uphuhliso lweteknoloji yebhetri ye-lithium yehlabathi inomzila omde wokulandela.Ekuqaleni kweminyaka yoo-1970, ekuphenduleni ingxaki yeoli, i-Exxon yaseka ilebhu yophando eNew Jersey, yatsala inani elikhulu leetalente eziphezulu kwifiziksi kunye nekhemistri, kuquka uStanley whitingham, ugxa wasemva kobugqirha kwi-electrochemistry eqinile kwiYunivesithi yaseStanford.Injongo yalo kukwakha kwakhona isisombululo esitsha samandla, oko kukuthi, ukuphuhlisa isizukulwana esitsha seebhetri ezinokutsha.

Ngelo xesha, iBell Labs iseke iqela leekhemisti kunye neefiziksi ezivela kwiYunivesithi yaseStanford.La macala mabini aphehlelele ukhuphiswano oluqatha kuphando nophuhliso lweebhetri zesizukulwana esilandelayo.Nokuba uphando lunxulumene, "imali ayiyongxaki.".Emva kweminyaka ephantse ibe mihlanu yophando oluyimfihlo kakhulu, uWhitingham neqela lakhe baqale baphuhlisa ibhetri yokuqala yehlabathi yelithium-ion egcwalisekayo.

Le bhetri ye-lithium ngobuchule isebenzisa i-titanium sulfide njengesixhobo se-cathode kunye ne-lithium njengento ye-anode.Ineenzuzo zobunzima bokukhanya, umthamo omkhulu kwaye akukho mpembelelo yememori.Ngexesha elifanayo, lilahla iintsilelo zebhetri yangaphambili, enokuthiwa yi-qualitative leap.Ngo-1976, u-Exxon wafaka isicelo selungelo lomenzi wokuqala we-lithium webhetri yehlabathi, kodwa akazange axhamle kushishino.Nangona kunjalo, oku akuchaphazeli igama lika-whitingham "njengoyise we-lithium" kunye nesimo sakhe emhlabeni.

Nangona ukuveliswa kwe-whitingham kukhuthaze ishishini, ukutshaja kwebhetri ukutsha kunye nokutyunyuzwa kwangaphakathi kulikhathaza kakhulu iqela, kubandakanya i-gudinaf.Ngoko ke, yena kunye nabancedisi ababini be-postdoctoral baqhubeka behlola itafile ye periodic ngokucwangcisiweyo.Ngowe-1980, ekugqibeleni bagqiba kwelokuba eyona nto ilungileyo yayiyi-cobalt.I-Lithium cobalt oxide, enokusetyenziswa njenge-cathode yeebhetri ze-lithium-ion, iphezulu kakhulu kunayo nayiphi na enye into ngelo xesha kwaye yahlala ngokukhawuleza kwimarike.

Ukusukela ngoko, itekhnoloji yebhetri yabantu ithathe inyathelo elikhulu ukuya phambili.Yintoni eya kwenzeka ngaphandle kwe-lithium cobaltite?Ngamafutshane, kwakutheni ukuze “iselfowuni enkulu” ibe nkulu kwaye inzima?Kungenxa yokuba akukho bhetri ye-lithium cobalt.Nangona kunjalo, nangona ibhetri ye-lithium cobalt oxide ineenzuzo ezininzi, ukungona kwayo kubonakaliswe emva kokusetyenziswa kwexabiso elikhulu, kubandakanywa neendleko eziphezulu, ukunganyangeki kokuchasa okuphezulu kunye nokusebenza komjikelo, kunye nongcoliseko olunzulu lwenkunkuma.

Ke ugoodinav kunye nomfundi wakhe uMike Thackeray baqhubeka nokukhangela izixhobo ezingcono.Ngomnyaka we-1982, uThackeray wenza ibhetri ye-lithium manganeti.Kodwa kungekudala, watsibela Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) ukufunda iibhetri lithium.Kwaye ugoodinaf kunye neqela lakhe bayaqhubeka nokukhangela ezinye izixhobo, behlisa uluhlu lube yindibaniselwano yentsimbi kunye nephosphorus ngokuphinda batshintshe ngokucokisekileyo iintsimbi kwitafile yeperiodiyo.

Ekugqibeleni, isinyithi kunye ne-phosphorus ayizange yenze uqwalaselo olufunwa yiqela, kodwa lwenza esinye isakhiwo: emva kwe-licoo3 kunye ne-LiMn2O4, into yesithathu ye-cathode yeebhetri ze-lithium-ion yazalwa ngokusemthethweni: LiFePO4.Ke ngoko, ezona electrode zebhetri ze-lithium-ion zibaluleke kakhulu zazalelwa kwilabhoratri ye-dinaf ukusukela kumaxesha amandulo.Ikwaye yaba yindawo yokuzala kweebhetri ze-lithium emhlabeni, ngokuzalwa kwezi chwephesha zimbini zeBhaso leNobel.

Ngo-1996, iYunivesithi yaseTexas yenza isicelo selungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza egameni lelabhoratri ye-goodinaf.Le patent yokuqala esisiseko yebhetri yeLiFePO4.Ukususela ngoko, uMichelle Armand, isazi se-lithium yesiFrentshi, uye wajoyina iqela kwaye wafaka isicelo kunye ne-dinaf kwi-patent ye-LiFePO4 iteknoloji yokugqoka i-carbon, ibe yi-patent yesibini ye-LiFePO4.La malungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza angundoqo angenako ukujikwa kuyo nayiphi na imeko.

 

3/ Ukudluliselwa kweTekhnoloji

Ngophuhliso lwesicelo setekhnoloji, kukho ingxaki engxamisekileyo ekufuneka isonjululwe kwi-electrode engalunganga ye-lithium cobalt oxide ibhetri, ngoko ke ayizange iphuculwe ngokukhawuleza.Ngelo xesha, isinyithi se-lithium sasisetyenziswa njengento ye-anode yeebhetri ze-lithium.Nangona inokubonelela ngoxinaniso lwamandla aphezulu, bekukho iingxaki ezininzi, kubandakanywa umgubo ngokuthe ngcembe we-anode kunye nokulahleka komsebenzi, kwaye ukukhula kwe-lithium dendrites kunokugqobhoza i-diaphragm, okukhokelela kumjikelezo omfutshane okanye ukutsha kunye nokugqabhuka kwesixhobo. ibhetri.

Xa ingxaki yayinzima kakhulu, kwavela amaJapan.U-Sony uye waphuhlisa iibhetri ze-lithium ixesha elide, kwaye uye wanikela ingqalelo ngokukhawuleza kuphuhliso lwehlabathi.Nangona kunjalo, akukho lwazi malunga nokuba nini kwaye phi iteknoloji ye-lithium cobaltite yafunyanwa.Ngo-1991, u-Sony wakhupha ibhetri yokuqala ye-lithium-ion yorhwebo kwimbali yoluntu, kwaye wabeka iibhetri ezininzi ze-lithium cobalt oxide cylindrical kwikhamera ye-ccd-tr1 yamva nje.Ukusukela ngoko, ubuso bomthengi we-elektroniki wehlabathi bubhalwe kwakhona.

NguYoshino owenza esi sigqibo sibalulekileyo.Waphayona ukusetyenziswa kwekhabhoni (graphite) endaweni ye-lithium njenge-anode yebhetri ye-lithium, kwaye idibene ne-lithium cobalt oxide cathode.Oku ngokusisiseko kuphucula umthamo kunye nobomi bomjikelezo webhetri ye-lithium, kwaye kunciphisa iindleko, ezingamandla okugqibela oshishino lwebhetri ye-lithium.Ukusukela ngoko, amashishini aseTshayina naseKorea agalele kumaza oshishino lwebhetri ye-lithium, kwaye iteknoloji entsha yamandla (ATL) yasekwa ngeli xesha.

Ngenxa yokubiwa kobuchwepheshe, "imanyano yamalungelo" eyaqalwa yiYunivesithi yaseTexas kwaye amanye amashishini ebephethe amakrele kwihlabathi jikelele, okubangele ukruthakruthwano lwelungelo lomenzi olubandakanya amazwe amaninzi kunye neenkampani.Ngelixa abantu basacinga ukuba i-LiFePO4 yeyona bhetri ifanelekileyo yamandla, inkqubo entsha ye-cathode yezinto edibanisa iingenelo ze-lithium niobate, i-lithium cobalt kunye ne-lithium manganese iye yazalelwa ngokuthula kwibhubhoratri yaseCanada.

NgoAprili ka-2001, uJeff Dann, unjingalwazi wefiziksi kwiYunivesithi yasedalhous kunye nososayensi oyintloko weqela le-3M laseCanada, wenza i-nickel enkulu ye-nickel cobalt manganese ternary composite cathode material, eyakhuthaza ibhetri ye-lithium ukuba iphule inyathelo lokugqibela lokungena kwimarike. .Ngomhla wama-27 ku-Epreli waloo nyaka, i-3M yafaka isicelo e-United States kwilungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza, eyona patent isisiseko semathiriyeli ye-ternary.Oku kuthetha ukuba okoko nje kwi-ternary system, akukho mntu unokujikeleza.

Phantse kwangaxeshanye, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) kuqala ucebise ingqikelelo etyebileyo lithium, yaye kwesi siseko, wasungula maleko lithium zizityebi kunye nezixhobo eziphezulu manganese ternary, kwaye isicelo ngempumelelo patent ngo 2004. Kwaye umntu ophetheyo olu phuhliso lwetekhnoloji yithackerel, eyaqulunqa i-lithium manganenate.Kuze kube yi-2012, uTesla waqala ukukhupha isantya sokunyuka ngokuthe ngcembe.U-Musk wanikela ngamaxesha amaninzi omvuzo ophezulu ukuze afune abantu abavela kwi-3M ye-lithium yebhetri ye-R & D kwisebe.

Ukuthatha eli thuba, i-3M yatyhalela isikhephe ecaleni kwangoku, yamkela iqhinga elithi "abantu bahambe, kodwa amalungelo elungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza ahlala", yalichitha ngokupheleleyo isebe lebhetri, kwaye yenza inzuzo ephezulu ngokuthumela amalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza kunye nentsebenziswano yobuchwephesha.Amalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza anikwe inani lamashishini ebhetri ye-lithium yaseJapan kunye neKorea afana ne-Elektron, i-Panasonic, i-Hitachi, i-Samsung, i-LG, i-L & F kunye ne-SK, kunye nezinto ze-cathode ezifana ne-Shanshan, i-Hunan Ruixiang kunye ne-Beida Xianxian e-China Kukho amashishini angaphezu kweshumi ewonke.

Amalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza ka-Anl anikezelwa kuphela kwiinkampani ezintathu: i-BASF, isigebenga sekhemikhali saseJamani, i-Toyoda industries, i-Japan cathode material factory, kunye ne-LG, inkampani yase-South Korea.Kamva, malunga nokhuphiswano oluphambili lwelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza kwimathiriyeli ye-ternary, amaqumrhu amabini aphezulu ophando lweyunivesithi aye asekwa.Oku kuye kwabumba amandla "angaphakathi" eteknoloji yamashishini ebhetri ye-lithium entshona, eJapan naseSouth Korea, ngelixa i-China ingazuzanga kakhulu.

 

4/ Ukunyuka kwamaShishini aseTshayina

Ekubeni i-China ingazange ikwazi ubugcisa obuphambili, yaphule njani imeko?Uphando lwebhetri ye-lithium yaseTshayina alukho emva kwexesha, luphantse ludityaniswe nehlabathi.Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yoo-1970, phantsi kwengcebiso Chen Liquan, i academician Chinese Academy of Engineering eJamani, Institute of fiziksi of Chinese Academy of Sciences waseka labhoratri yokuqala karhulumente ion eTshayina, waza waqalisa uphando lithium- abaqhubi be-ion kunye neebhetri ze-lithium.Kwi-1995, ibhetri yokuqala ye-lithium yaseTshayina yazalwa kwiZiko le-physics, i-Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Ngexesha elifanayo, ngenxa yokunyuka kwe-electronics yabathengi kwiminyaka yee-1990, iibhetri ze-lithium zaseChina ziye zaphakama ngaxeshanye, kunye nokuvela "kwezigebenga ezine", ezizezi, uLishen, BYD, bick kunye ne-ATL.Nangona iJapan yayikhokelela ekuphuhlisweni kweshishini, ngenxa yobunzima bokusinda, iSanyo Electric yathengiswa kwiPanasonic, kwaye u-Sony wathengisa ishishini layo le-lithium yebhetri kwimveliso ye-Murata.Kukhuphiswano oluqatha kwiimarike, kuphela i-BYD kunye ne-ATL "ezine ezinkulu" eChina.

Ngo-2011, “uluhlu lwabamhlophe” lwenkxaso karhulumente waseTshayina lwavala amashishini afumana inkxaso-mali kumazwe angaphandle.Emva kokuba ifunyenwe yinkunzi yaseJapan, isazisi se-ATL saphelelwa lixesha.Ngoko uZeng Yuqun, umseki we-ATL, ucebe ukwenza ishishini lebhetri lamandla elizimeleyo, vumela inkunzi yaseTshayina ithathe inxaxheba kuyo, kwaye idibanise izabelo zenkampani yomzali iTDK, kodwa akazange afumane imvume.Ke uZeng Yuqun waseka ixesha leNingde (catl), kwaye wenza inkqubela phambili ekuqokeleleni itekhnoloji yokuqala, waba lihashe elimnyama.

Ngokwendlela yetekhnoloji, i-BYD ikhetha ibhetri ye-lithium ye-iron phosphate ekhuselekileyo neyindleko, eyahluke kakhulu kwi-high density energy lithium ternary ibhetri kwixesha le-Ningde.Oku kunxulumene nemodeli yeshishini le-BYD.UWang Chuanfu, umseki wenkampani, ukhuthaza "ukutya intonga kude kube sekupheleni".Ngaphandle kweglasi kunye namatayara, phantse zonke ezinye iindawo zemoto ziveliswa kwaye zithengiswa ngokwayo, kwaye emva koko zikhuphisane nehlabathi langaphandle ngenzuzo yexabiso.Ngokusekwe koku, i-BYD sele iqinile kwindawo yesibini kwimarike yasekhaya ixesha elide.

Kodwa i-advanteji ye-BYD ikwabubuthathaka bayo: yenza iibhetri kwaye ithengise iimoto, nto leyo eyenza abanye abavelisi beemoto bangathembi ngokwendalo kwaye bakhethe ukunika iiodolo kubakhuphisana nabo kunabo.Umzekelo, uTesla, nangona itekhnoloji yebhetri ye-BYD ye-LiFePO4 iqokelele ngaphezulu, isakhetha itekhnoloji efanayo yexesha le-Ningde.Ukuze utshintshe imeko, i-BYD iceba ukwahlula ibhetri yamandla kwaye iqalise "ibhetri ye-blade".

Ukususela ekuhlaziyweni kunye nokuvula, ibhetri ye-lithium yenye yeenkalo ezimbalwa ezinokubamba amazwe aphuhlileyo.Izizathu zezi zilandelayo: okokuqala, urhulumente ubeka ukubaluleka okukhulu kukhuseleko lobuchule;okwesibini, akukashiywa lixesha ukuba uqalise;okwesithathu, imarike yasekhaya inkulu ngokwaneleyo;okwesine, iqela labafuna iingcali zobugcisa kunye namashishini basebenza kunye ukuze batyhutyhe.Kodwa ukuba sisondeza, njengegama lexesha le-Ningde, yimpumelelo yezoqoqosho yase-China kunye nexesha lezithuthi zombane ezibumba ixesha le-Ningde.

Kule mihla, i-China ayishiyeki ngasemva kumazwe aphuhlileyo kuphando lwezixhobo ze-anode kunye ne-electrolytes, kodwa kusekho ukusilela, okufana ne-lithium ibhetri separator, ukuxinana kwamandla njalo njalo.Ngokucacileyo, ukuqokelelwa kwetekhnoloji yasentshona, iJapan kunye noMzantsi Korea kuseneenzuzo ezithile.Umzekelo, nangona amaxesha e-Ningde ebekwe kwindawo yokuqala kwimakethi yebhetri yehlabathi iminyaka eliqela, iingxelo zophando lwasekhaya nezangaphandle zisadwelisa iPanasonic kunye ne-LG kwinqanaba lokuqala, ngelixa amaxesha e-Ningde kunye ne-BYD zikwinqanaba lesibini.

 

5/ Isiphelo
 

Ngokungathandabuzekiyo, kunye nophuhliso olongezelelweyo lophando oluhambelanayo kwixesha elizayo, ukuphuhliswa kunye nokusetyenziswa kweebhetri ze-lithium kwihlabathi kuya kuzisa ithemba elibanzi, eliya kukhuthaza ukuguqulwa kwamandla kunye nokutsha koluntu, kunye nokufaka umfutho omtsha kuphuhliso oluzinzileyo. loqoqosho noluntu kunye nokomeleza ukhuseleko lokusingqongileyo.Njengenkampani ekhokelayo yeemoto kushishino, uTesla ufana nentlanzi.Ngelixa ivuselela uphuhliso lwezithuthi zamandla amatsha, ikwakhokela kumngeni kwindawo yentengiso yebhetri ye-lithium.

UZeng Yuqun wake wachaza ibali elingaphakathi lobudlelwane bakhe noTesla: i-musk ibithetha ngeendleko imini yonke.Intsingiselo kukuba uTesla utyhala phantsi iindleko zeebhetri.Nangona kunjalo, kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba kwinkqubo ye-Tesla kunye ne-Ningde yexesha lokukhawuleza kwimarike yaseTshayina, zombini isithuthi kunye nebhetri akufanele ingayihoyi ingxaki yomgangatho ngenxa yeendleko.Nje ukuba kube njalo, uthotho lwasekhaya lokuqala lwemigaqo-nkqubo eneenjongo ezintle luya kuncitshiswa kakhulu ngokubaluleka.

Ukongezelela, kukho inyaniso ebuhlungu.Nangona iTshayina ilawula imakethi yebhetri ye-lithium, ezona teknoloji zingundoqo kunye namalungelo omenzi we-lithium iron phosphate kunye nezixhobo ze-ternary azikho ezandleni zabantu baseTshayina.Ukuba kuthelekiswa neJapan, iChina inesikhewu esikhulu sotyalo-mali lwabantu kunye nenkunzi kuphando lwebhetri ye-lithium kunye nophuhliso.Oku kugxininisa ukubaluleka kophando lwenzululwazi olusisiseko, oluxhomekeke ekuzingiseni kwexesha elide kunye notyalo-mali lukarhulumente, amaziko ophando lwenzululwazi kunye namashishini.

Okwangoku, iibhetri ze-lithium zihambela kwisizukulwana sesithathu emva kwezizukulwana ezibini ze-lithium cobalt oxide, i-lithium iron phosphate kunye ne-lithium ternary.Njengoko ubuchwephesha obuphambili kunye namalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza kwizizukulwana ezibini zokuqala zahlulwe ziinkampani zangaphandle, iChina ayinazo iingenelo ezingundoqo ezaneleyo, kodwa ingakwazi ukubuyisela umva imeko kwisizukulwana esilandelayo ngokucwangcisa kwangaphambili.Ngokujonga indlela yophuhliso lwamashishini ophando olusisiseko kunye nophuhliso, uphando lwesicelo kunye nophuhliso lwemveliso yezinto zebhetri, kufuneka silungele imfazwe yexesha elide.

Kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba uphuhliso kunye nokusetyenziswa kweebhetri ze-lithium e-China zisajongene nemingeni emininzi.Ngokomzekelo, ekusebenziseni ngokwenene i-lithium ibhetri yeenqwelo zamandla amatsha, kusekho ezinye iingxaki, ezifana nokuxinwa kwamandla aphantsi, ukusebenza kakubi kobushushu obuphantsi, ixesha elide lokutshaja, ubomi obufutshane benkonzo kunye nokunye.

Ukusukela ngo-2019, i-China iye yalurhoxisa “uluhlu olumhlophe” lweebhetri, kwaye amashishini angaphandle anje nge-LG kunye ne-Panasonic abuyele kwintengiso yaseTshayina, ngokukhawuleza okukhulu okukhubekisayo.Ngexesha elifanayo, ngokunyuka kwengcinezelo kwiindleko zeebhetri ze-lithium, ukhuphiswano kwiimarike zasekhaya luba lukhulu.Oku kuya kunyanzela amashishini afanelekileyo ukuba aphumelele inzuzo kukhuphiswano olupheleleyo kunye nokusebenza kweendleko eziphezulu zemveliso kunye nesakhono sokusabela ngokukhawuleza kwimarike, ukuze kukhuthazwe uphuculo kunye nohlumo oluqhubekayo loshishino lwebhetri ye-lithium yaseTshayina.


Ixesha lokuposa: Mar-16-2021
Ngaba ufuna ulwazi oluthe kratya malunga neemveliso zobuchwephesha kunye nezisombululo zamandla kaDET Amandla?Sineqela leengcali elilungele ukukunceda rhoqo.Nceda ugcwalise ifom kwaye ummeli wethu weentengiso uya kuqhagamshelana nawe kungekudala.