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Does Leading The Global Lithium Battery Market Mean That China Has Mastered The Core Technology (1)

Ngentsasa yango-Epreli 21, 2014, i-musk iparashute eBeijing Qiaofu Fangcao ngenqwelomoya yabucala kwaye yaya kwi-Ofisi yoMphathiswa wezenzululwazi kunye netekhnoloji yase China kwindawo yokuqala yokujonga ikamva lokungena kukaTesla e China. Icandelo loMphathiswa wezenzululwazi kunye netekhnoloji ibisoloko ikhuthaza uTesla, kodwa ngeli xesha i-musk ivale umnyango kwaye yafumana le mpendulo ilandelayo: I-China ithathela ingqalelo uhlengahlengiso lwerhafu kwizithuthi zombane. Phambi kokugqitywa kohlengahlengiso, iimodeli ziya kufuneka zihlawule irhafu engama-25% njengezithuthi zepetroli zemveli.

Ke izicwangciso ze-musk "zokukhwaza" kwingqungquthela ye-geek Park. Kwiholo eliphambili leholo yekonsathi yaseZhongshan, uYang Yuanqing, uZhou Hongyi, uZhang Yiming nabanye bahlala phantsi eqongeni. Kwaye u-musk walinda emva kweqonga, wakhupha iselfowuni kunye ne-tweet. Xa umculo ukhalayo, waya eqongeni, evuya kwaye eqhwaba izandla. Kodwa ukubuyela kwakhe eMelika, wathumela umyalezo ngetwitter ekhalaza: "E-China, sifana nosana olukhasayo."

Ukusukela ngoko, u-Tesla ebesemngciphekweni wokuchaphazeleka amatyeli aliqela njengoko imarike ngokubanzi ingumlinganiso kwaye ingxaki ye-dystocia ikhokelele kumjikelo wokuqokelelwa kwabathengi okwisiqingatha sonyaka. Ngenxa yoko, i-musk yawa yada yatshaya nentsangu, yalala kumzi-mveliso waseCalifornia yonke imihla ukujonga inkqubela phambili. Eyona ndlela yokusombulula ingxaki yamandla kukwakha iifektri ezinkulu eTshayina. Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, u-musk wakhala kwintetho yakhe eHong Kong: kubathengi baseTshayina, wafunda nokusebenzisa wechat.

 

Ixesha liyabhabha. NgoJanuwari 7, 2020, imusk yeza eShanghai kwakhona yahambisa ibhetshi yokuqala yezitshixo ezi-3 kubanini bemoto baseTshayina kumzi mveliso weTesla Shanghai Super. Amazwi akhe okuqala athi: Enkosi kurhulumente waseTshayina. Wayenomdaniso wokudanisa umqolo kuloo ndawo. Ukusukela ngoko, ngexabiso elibukhali lokuncitshiswa kwemodeli yasekhaya yesi-3, abantu abaninzi ngaphakathi nangaphandle kolu shishino batshilo kukoyikeka: isiphelo sezithuthi zamandla ezintsha zaseTshayina ziyeza.

Nangona kunjalo, kunyaka ophelileyo, u-Tesla ufumene iziganeko ezinkulu zokuqengqeleka, kubandakanya ibhetri yokutsha okuzenzekelayo, i-injini engalawulekiyo, isibhakabhaka esibhabha kude, njl. Kutshanje, ngenxa yokusilela kwamandla kweemoto ezintsha, uTesla ugxekwe ngabezindaba. Ukuthetha ngokwentelekiso, ingxaki yokuncipha kwebhetri yeTesla ixhaphake kakhulu, abanini bemoto kwi-Intanethi ukugxeka ilizwi nabo belandelelana.

Ukujonga oku, amaziko aseburhulumenteni athathe amanyathelo ngokusemthethweni. Kutshanje, uLawulo Jikelele lokujonga imarike kunye namanye amasebe amahlanu enze udliwanondlebe noTesla, obebandakanyeka ikakhulu kwiingxaki ezinje ngesantya esingaqhelekanga, umlilo webhetri, ukuphuculwa kwezithuthi ezikude, njlnjl. .

Ibaluleke kangakanani ibhetri ye-lithium? Ukujonga emva kwikhondo lophuhliso lwamashishini, ngaba i-China iyabuqonda ngokwenene ubuchwephesha obungundoqo? Ungayifumana njani impumelelo?

 

1 / Isixhobo esibalulekileyo samaxesha

 Does Leading The Global Lithium Battery Market Mean That China Has Mastered The Core Technology (2)

Kwinkulungwane yama-20, uluntu lwenze ubutyebi obungaphezulu kwesixa seminyaka engama-2000 edlulileyo. Phakathi kwabo, isayensi kunye netekhnoloji inokuthathwa njengesixhobo sokuthatha inxaxheba ekukhuthazeni inkcubeko kunye nophuhliso lwezoqoqosho. Kule minyaka ilikhulu idlulileyo, inzululwazi nethekhinoloji ezenziwe ngabantu zikhazimla njengeenkwenkwezi, kwaye ezimbini zazo zamkelwe njengezinefuthe elikhulu kwinkqubo yezembali. Eyokuqala zii-transistors, ngaphandle kwazo ngekhe zibekho iikhompyuter; Okwesibini ziibhetri ze-lithium-ion, ngaphandle kwayo ilizwe belingayi kucinga.

Namhlanje, iibhetri ze-lithium zisetyenzisiwe kwizigidi zezigidi zeefowuni eziphathwayo, iilaptops kunye nezinye iimveliso ze-elektroniki minyaka le, kunye nezigidi zezithuthi ezitsha zamandla, kunye nazo zonke izixhobo eziphathwayo emhlabeni ezifuna ukubizwa. Ukongeza, ngokufika kohlaziyo olutsha lwezithuthi zamandla kunye nokudala izixhobo ezingaphezulu kweselfowuni, ishishini lebhetri ye-lithium iya kuba nekamva eliqaqambileyo. Umzekelo, ixabiso lonyaka lokuphuma kweeseli zebhetri ye-lithium kuphela lifikelele kwi-yuan engama-200 ezigidi, kwaye ikamva lisondele kwikona.

Izicwangciso kunye neeshedyuli zokupheliswa kweemoto zepetroli ezenzelwe amazwe ahlukeneyo kwihlabathi nazo ziya kuba "kukucofa ikhekhe". Eyokuqala yiNorway ngo-2025, kwaye i-United States, iJapan kunye namazwe amaninzi aseYurophu malunga ne-2035. I-China ayinaso isicwangciso sexesha esicacileyo. Ukuba akukho buchwephesha butsha kwikamva, ishishini lebhetri ye-lithium iya kuqhubeka ikhula amashumi eminyaka. Kungatshiwo ukuba nabani na ongumnini wetekhnoloji yesiseko yebhetri ye-lithium kuthetha ukuba nentonga yokulawula ishishini.

 

 Amazwe aseNtshona yeYurophu abeka ithayimthebhile yokupheliswa kwezithuthi zepetroli 

Ukutyhubela iminyaka, i-Yurophu kunye ne-United States, i-China, i-Japan kunye ne-South Korea baye baqalisa ukhuphiswano olunamandla kwaye bade baxambulisana nakwicandelo leebhetri ze-lithium, ezibandakanya oososayensi abaninzi abadumileyo, iiyunivesithi ezininzi eziphambili kunye namaziko ophando, kunye nezigebenga ipetroleum, imichiza, imoto, isayensi kunye netekhnoloji. Ngubani obengacinga ukuba indlela yophuhliso lweshishini lebhetri ye-lithium iyafana naleyo ye-semiconductor: yavela eYurophu naseMelika, yomelele kuneJapan ne-South Korea, kwaye ekugqibeleni yalawulwa yi-China.

Ngama-1970 kunye no-1980, iteknoloji yebhetri ye-lithium yavela eYurophu naseMelika. Emva kwexesha, abantu baseMelika ngokulandelelana baqulunqa i-lithium cobalt oxide, i-lithium manganese oxide kunye ne-lithium iron iron phosphate batri, ekhokele kolu shishino. Ngo-1991, i-Japan yaba yeyokuqala ukwenza i-lithium-ion ibhetri, kodwa ke imakethi yaqhubeka incipha. UMzantsi Korea, kwelinye icala, uxhomekeke kurhulumente ukuba awutyhalele phambili. Kwangelo xesha, ngenkxaso eyomeleleyo kurhulumente, i-China yenze ukuba ibhetri ye-lithium ibe yeyokuqala inyathelo ngenyathelo lehlabathi.

Ekuveleni kwecandelo lebhetri ye-lithium, iYurophu, iMelika kunye neJapan badlale indima ebalulekileyo ekukhuthazeni itekhnoloji. Kwi-2019, ibhaso likaNobel kwikhemistry lanikezelwa kwizazinzulu zaseMelika uJohn goodinaf, uStanley whitingham kunye nososayensi waseJapan u-Yoshino ekuqwalaseleni igalelo labo kuphando kunye nophuhliso lweebhetri ze-lithium-ion. Kuba oososayensi abavela e-United States nase-Japan baphumelele imbasa yeNobel, ingaba i-China ingakhokela phambili kubuchwephesha be-lithium ibhetri?

 

2 / Ukuzalwa kwebhetri ye-lithium 

Ukuphuhliswa kwetekhnoloji yebhetri ye-lithium yelizwe jikelele inomkhondo omde wokulandela. Ekuqaleni kwee-1970, ukuphendula kwingxaki yeoyile, u-Exxon waseka ilabhoratri yophando eNew Jersey, etsala inani elikhulu leetalente eziphezulu kwi-physics nakwi-chemistry, kubandakanya no-Stanley whitingham, umntu osesikhundleni sobugqirha kwi-electrochemistry eqinile e-Stanford University. Injongo yayo kukwakha ngokutsha isisombululo samandla, Oko kukuthi, ukuphuhlisa isizukulwana esitsha seebhetri ezinokuphinda zisebenze.

Kwangelo xesha, iBell Labs iseke iqela leekhemesti kunye nefizikiki kwiYunivesithi yaseStanford. La macala mabini asungule ukhuphiswano olunobuzaza kuphando kunye nasekuphuhlisweni kweebhetri zesizukulwana esilandelayo. Nokuba uphando lunxulumene, "imali ayongxaki.". Emva kweminyaka ephantse ibe mihlanu yophando oluyimfihlo kakhulu, i-whitingham kunye neqela lakhe baqala ukwenza ibhetri ye-lithium-ion yokuqala ehlawulekayo kwihlabathi.

Le bhetri ye-lithium isebenzisa ngobuchule i-titanium sulfide njengesixhobo se-cathode kunye ne-lithium njengezinto ze-anode. Inezibonelelo zobunzima bokukhanya, amandla amakhulu kwaye akukho siphumo sememori. Kwangelo xesha, ilahla iziphene zebhetri yangaphambili, ekunokuthiwa kukutsiba okusemgangathweni. Ngo-1976, u-Exxon wafaka isicelo selungelo elilodwa lomenzi we-lithium yebhetri, kodwa akazange azuze lukhulu kwimizi-mveliso. Nangona kunjalo, oku akuchaphazeli igama lika-whitingham njengo "tata we-lithium" kunye nenqanaba lakhe emhlabeni.

Nangona uyilo lwe-whitingham lukhuthaze ishishini, ukutshaja kwebhetri kunye nokutyunyuzwa kwangaphakathi kuliphazamise kakhulu iqela, kubandakanya ne-gudinaf. Ke ngoko, yena nabancedisi ababini basemva kokuqhubeka nokuvavanya itafile yamaxesha ngamaxesha. Ngo-1980, ekugqibeleni bagqiba kwelokuba eyona nto ibalaseleyo yayiyi-cobalt. I-lithium cobalt oxide, enokusetyenziswa njenge-cathode ye-lithium-ion ibhetri, iphezulu kakhulu kunayo nayiphi na enye into ngelo xesha kwaye ihlala kwimarike ngokukhawuleza.

Ukusukela ngoko, iteknoloji yebhetri yomntu ithathe inyathelo elibonakalayo eliya phambili. Yintoni enokwenzeka ngaphandle kwe-lithium cobaltite? Ngamafutshane, kutheni "iselfowuni enkulu" yayinkulu kangaka kwaye inzima? Kungenxa yokuba akukho bhetri ye-lithium cobalt. Nangona kunjalo, nangona ibhetri ye-lithium cobalt oxide ibhetri inezibonelelo ezininzi, iziphene zayo ziyavezwa emva kokufakwa kwesicelo esikhulu, kubandakanya neendleko eziphezulu, ukunganyangeki ngaphezulu kokuhlawula ngaphezulu kunye nokusebenza komjikelo, kunye nongcoliseko olukhulu lwenkunkuma.

Ke u-goodinav kunye nomfundi wakhe uMike Thackeray bayaqhubeka nokukhangela izixhobo ezingcono. Ngo-1982, uThackeray wasungula ibhetri ye-lithium manganate. Kodwa kungekudala, watsibela eArgonne National Laboratory (ANL) ukuya kufunda ibhetri ye-lithium. Kwaye okuhle kunye neqela lakhe bayaqhubeka nokukhangela ezinye izinto, ukunciphisa uluhlu lwendibaniselwano yentsimbi kunye ne-phosphorus ngokuphinda ngokutshintsha isinyithi kwitafile yamaxesha.

Ekugqibeleni, i-iron kunye ne-phosphorus azenzanga ubumbeko olufunwa liqela, kodwa bakha esinye isakhiwo: emva kwe-licoo3 kunye ne-LiMn2O4, into yesithathu ye-cathode yeebhetri ze-lithium-ion yazalwa ngokusemthethweni: LiFePO4. Ke ngoko, ezona zintathu zibalulekileyo zebhetri ye-lithium-ion ii-electrode ezilungileyo zonke zazalelwa kwilebhu ye-dinaf ukusukela kumaxesha amandulo. Ikwayindawo yokuzalwa kweebhetri ze-lithium emhlabeni, ngokuzalwa kweekhemesti ezimbini zeNobel Prize ezikhankanywe apha ngasentla.

Ngo-1996, iYunivesithi yaseTexas yafaka isicelo selungelo elilodwa lomenzi egameni lelebhu efanelekileyo. Eli lilungelo elilodwa lomenzi lokuqala le-LiFePO4 ibhetri. Ukusukela ngoko, uMichelle Armand, isazinzulu se-lithium esingumFrentshi, ujoyine iqela kwaye wasebenzisa kunye ne-dinaf yelungelo lobunikazi lobuchwephesha be-LiFePO4 ye-carbon coating technology, waba lilungelo lesibini lobunikazi be-LiFePO4. Ezi patent zimbini zezona patent ezingundoqo ezingenakudlula nangayiphi na imeko.

 

3 / Ugqithiso lwetekhnoloji

Ngophuhliso lwesicelo sobuchwephesha, kukho ingxaki engxamisekileyo ekufuneka isonjululwe kwi-electrode engalunganga yebhetri ye-lithium cobalt oxide, ngenxa yoko ayenziwanga ngokukhawuleza. Ngelo xesha, i-lithium yesinyithi yayisetyenziswa njengezinto ze-anode zebhetri ye-lithium. Nangona inokubonelela ngamandla aphezulu kakhulu, bekukho iingxaki ezininzi, kubandakanya ukungcola ngokuthe ngcembe kwezinto ze-anode kunye nelahleko yomsebenzi, kwaye ukukhula kwe-lithium dendrites kunokugqobhoza uvalo, okukhokelela kwisiphaluka esifutshane okanye ukutshisa kunye nokudubula ibhetri.

Xa ingxaki yayinzima kakhulu, kwavela amaJapan. U-Sony uphuhlise iibhetri ze-lithium ixesha elide, kwaye ujonge kakhulu kuphuhliso lwehlabathi. Nangona kunjalo, akukho lwazi malunga nokuba yafunyanwa nini kwaye phi itekhnoloji ye-lithium cobaltite. Ngo-1991, uSony wakhupha ibhetri yokuqala ye-lithium-ion kwimbali yoluntu, kwaye wabeka iibhetri ezininzi ze-lithium cobalt oxide cylindrical kwikhamera ye-ccd-tr1 yamva nje. Ukusukela ngoko, ubuso babathengi bekhompyutha baphinde babhalwa. 

NguYoshino owenza esi sigqibo sibalulekileyo. Waye nguvulindlela ekusebenziseni ikhabhon (grafayithi) endaweni ye-lithium njenge-anode yebhetri ye-lithium, kwaye idityaniswe ne-lithium cobalt oxide cathode. Oku kuphucula ubukhulu becala amandla kunye nobomi bomjikelo webhetri ye-lithium, kwaye kunciphisa iindleko, amandla okugqibela okwenza uqoqosho lwebhetri ye-lithium. Ukusukela ngoko, amashishini amaTshayina nawaseKorea athulule amaza e-lithium yebhetri, kwaye itekhnoloji yamandla entsha (i-ATL) yasekwa ngeli xesha.

Ngenxa yobusela betekhnoloji, "umanyano lwamalungelo" oluqaliswe yiYunivesithi yaseTexas kunye namanye amashishini bebephethe amakrele kwihlabathi liphela, okukhokelela kukungqubana kwelungelo elilodwa lomenzi elibandakanya amazwe amaninzi kunye neenkampani. Ngelixa abantu besacinga ukuba i-LiFePO4 yeyona ibhetri yamandla ifanelekileyo, inkqubo yezinto zekathode yokudibanisa izibonelelo ze-lithium niobate, i-lithium cobalt kunye ne-lithium manganese izalwe ngokuzolileyo kwilabhoratri eCanada.

Ngo-Epreli 2001, uJeff Dann, uNjingalwazi weFizikiki kwiDalhous University kunye nososayensi oyintloko weqela le-3M eCanada, wasungula i-nickel cobalt manganese ternary composite cathode ebonakalayo, eyanyusa ibhetri ye-lithium ukuba inyathele inyathelo lokugqibela lokungena kwintengiso. . Ngo-Epreli 27 waloo nyaka, i-3M yafaka isicelo e-United States kwilungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza, esisiseko selungelo elilodwa lomenzi wezinto zeternary. Oku kuthetha ukuba ngokude ukuba kwinkqubo ye-ternary, akukho mntu unokujikeleza.

Phantse ngaxeshanye, iArgonne National Laboratory (ANL) yaqala yacebisa umbono we-lithium etyebileyo, kwaye kwesi sizathu, yasungula i-lithium etyebileyo kunye nezinto eziphezulu ze-manganese ternary, kwaye yafaka ngempumelelo ilungelo lobunikazi ngo-2004. Kwaye umntu ophetheyo Olu phuhliso lobuchwephesha ngu-thackerel, owasungula i-lithium manganate. Kude kube ngo-2012, uTesla waqala ukuphula amandla okunyuka ngokuthe ngcembe. UMusk unikezele amatyeli aliqela emivuzo ephezulu ukuze afumane abantu abavela kwisebe le-R & D le-3M.

Ukuthatha eli thuba, i-3M yatyhala isikhephe ngoku, yamkela iqhinga "lokuhamba kwabantu, kodwa amalungelo amalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza ahlala", alichitha ngokupheleleyo isebe lebhetri, kwaye lenza inzuzo ephezulu ngokuthumela amalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza kunye nentsebenziswano kwezobuchwephesha. Amalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza anikwe inani lamashishini ebhetri aseJapan naseKorea afana ne-Elektron, Panasonic, Hitachi, Samsung, LG, L & F kunye ne-SK, kunye nezinto zekathode ezinje ngeShanshan, Hunan Ruixiang kunye neBeida Xianxian e China Kukho ngaphezulu kwamashishini alishumi ewonke.

Amalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza ka-Anl anikwa kuphela iinkampani ezintathu: i-BASF, ingxilimbela yemichiza yaseJamani, amashishini eToyoda, umzi-mveliso wezinto zaseJapan, kunye ne-LG, inkampani yaseMzantsi Korea. Emva kwexesha, kujikeleze ukhuphiswano olusisiseko lweemveliso zeternary, kwasekwa imibutho emibini yophando eyunivesithi ephezulu. Oku kuye kwabumba ukomelela kwetekhnoloji "kwangaphakathi" kwamashishini ebhetri ye-lithium entshona, eJapan nase Mzantsi Korea, ngelixa i-China ingafumananga lukhulu.

 

4 / Ukunyuka kwamashishini amaTshayina

Ukusukela i-China ingakhange ibuchwephesha ubuchwephesha obusezantsi, iphule njani le meko? Uphando lwe-lithium lwe-China alukhawulezi kakhulu, phantse luhambelana nehlabathi. Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yoo-1970, phantsi kwengcebiso ka-Chen Liquan, isifundiswa se-Chinese Academy of Engineering eJamani, i-Institute of physics ye-Chinese Academy of Sciences yaseka ilabhoratri yokuqala eqinileyo e-China e-China, kwaye yaqala uphando nge-lithium- Ion conductor kunye neebhetri ze-lithium. Ngo-1995, ibhetri yokuqala ye-lithium yaseChina yazalwa kwi-Institute of physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Kwangelo xesha, enkosi ngokunyuka kweelektroniki zabathengi kwii-1990s, iibhetri zase China zonyuke ngaxeshanye, kwaye kwavela "iingxilimbela ezine", ezizezi nguLishen, BYD, bick kunye ne-ATL. Nangona iJapan ikhokele kuphuhliso lweshishini, ngenxa yengxaki yokusinda, iSanyo Electric ithengiselwe iPanasonic, kwaye uSony wathengisa ishishini lebhetri ye-lithium kwimveliso kaMurata. Kukhuphiswano oluqatha kwimarike, yi-BYD kunye ne-ATL kuphela ezi "zikhulu ezine" e-China.

Ngo-2011, urhulumente wase-China uxhase “uluhlu lwabamhlophe” wavala amashishini axhaswa ngezimali kwamanye amazwe. Emva kokufunyanwa kwikomkhulu laseJapan, isazisi se-ATL saphelelwa lixesha. Ke u-Zeng Yuqun, umseki we-ATL, wayecebe ukwenza ishishini lamandla ebhetri azimeleyo, avumele inkunzi yase-China ithathe inxaxheba kuyo, kwaye inyibilikise izabelo zenkampani yomzali i-TDK, kodwa akafumana mvume. Ke uZeng Yuqun waseka ixesha le-Ningde (catl), kwaye wenza inkqubela phambili ekuqokeleleni itekhnoloji yoqobo, kwaye waba lihashe elimnyama.

Ngokwendlela yetekhnoloji, i-BYD ikhetha ibhetri ye-lithium phosphate yebhetri ekhuselekileyo kunye nexabiso eliphantsi, eyahlukileyo kumandla aphezulu e-lithium ternary battery kwi-Ningde era. Oku kunxulumene nemodeli yeshishini le-BYD. U-Wang Chuanfu, umseki wenkampani, uxhasa "ukutya intonga kude kube sekupheleni". Ngaphandle kweglasi kunye namavili, phantse zonke ezinye iinxalenye zemoto ziveliswa kwaye zithengiswe zodwa, emva koko zikhuphisane nelizwe langaphandle ngexabiso elincomekayo. Ngokusekwe koku, i-BYD ibime ngokuqinileyo kwindawo yesibini kwimarike yasekhaya ixesha elide.

Kodwa inzuzo ye-BYD ikwangubuthathaka bayo: yenza iibhetri kwaye ithengise iimoto, ezenza ukuba abanye abavelisi bezinto zemvelo bangathembi kwaye bakhethe ukunika iiodolo kwabo bakhuphisana nabo kunokuba bazithethele. Umzekelo, uTesla, nangona itekhnoloji yeebhetri ye-LiFePO4 ye-BYD iye yaqokelela ngaphezulu, isekhetha itekhnoloji efanayo yexesha le-Ningde. Ukuze utshintshe imeko, i-BYD iceba ukwahlula ibhetri yamandla kunye nokumilisela "iblade yeblade".

Ukusukela ukulungiswa kunye nokuvulwa, ibhetri ye-lithium yenye yeendawo ezimbalwa ezinokubamba amazwe aphuhlileyo. Izizathu zezi zilandelayo: okokuqala, urhulumente uqaphela ukubaluleka okukhulu kukhuseleko lobuchule; okwesibini, akukabi semva kwexesha ukuqala; Okwesithathu, imarike yasekhaya inkulu ngokwaneleyo; Okwesine, iqela leengcali ezinqwenela ubuchwephesha kunye namashishini basebenza kunye ukuqhekeza. Kodwa ukuba sisondeza, njengegama lexesha le-Ningde, yimpumelelo ye-China kunye nexesha lezithuthi zombane ezibumba ixesha le-Ningde.

Kule mihla, i-China ayisekho emva kwamazwe ahambele phambili kuphando lwezixhobo ze-anode kunye nee-electrolyte, kodwa kusekho iziphene, ezinje ngokwahlulahlula ibhetri ye-lithium, ukuxinana kwamandla njalo njalo. Ngokucacileyo, ukuqokelelwa kwetekhnoloji kwintshona, iJapan kunye noMzantsi Korea kusenezibonelelo ezithile. Umzekelo, nangona amaxesha ka-Ningde ebekwe kwindawo yokuqala kwimarike yebhetri yelizwe kangangeminyaka eliqela, iingxelo zophando kushishino lwasekhaya nakwamanye amazwe zisadwelisa iPanasonic kunye ne-LG kwinqanaba lokuqala, ngelixa amaxesha e-Ningde kunye ne-BYD akwinqanaba lesibini.

 

5 / isiphelo
 

Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, ngophuhliso oluthe kratya lophando olunxulumene nexesha elizayo, ukuphuhliswa kunye nokusetyenziswa kweebhetri ze-lithium emhlabeni kuya kuzisa ithemba elibanzi, eliza kukhuthaza uhlengahlengiso lwamandla kunye nokuyila ngokutsha koluntu, kunye nokufaka umfutho omtsha kuphuhliso oluzinzileyo. ezoqoqosho noluntu kunye nokomeleza ukhuselo lwendalo Njengenkampani ehamba phambili yemveliso kwishishini, iTesla ifana nentlanzi yekati. Ngelixa kukhuthaza ukukhula kwezithuthi zamandla amatsha, ikwakhokela kwimiceli mngeni kwimarike yebhetri ye-lithium.

UZeng Yuqun ukhe wachaza ibali langaphakathi lobumbano kunye noTesla: i-musk ibithetha ngeendleko imini yonke. Intsingiselo kukuba iTesla ityhala iindleko zeebhetri. Nangona kunjalo, kufanele kuqatshelwe ukuba kwinkqubo yeTesla kunye nexesha likaNingde lokungxamiseka kwintengiso yaseTshayina, zombini isithuthi kunye nebhetri akufuneki ziyityeshele ingxaki esemgangathweni ngenxa yexabiso. Xa kunjalo, uthotho lwasekhaya lwenkqubo-nkqubo eneenjongo ezintle ziya kuncitshiswa ngokubaluleka.

Ukongeza, kukho inyani ebuhlungu. Nangona i-China ilawula intengiso yebhetri ye-lithium, ezona teknoloji ziphambili kunye namalungelo awodwa omenzi we-lithium iron phosphate kunye nezinto ze-ternary azikho ezandleni zabantu baseTshayina. Ukuba ithelekiswa neJapan, i-China ine-gap enkulu kutyalo-mali lomntu nakwinkunzi kuphando lwebhetri ye-lithium kunye nophuhliso. Oku kugxininisa ukubaluleka kophando olusisiseko lwenzululwazi, oluxhomekeke kukuzingisa kwexesha elide kunye notyalo mali lukarhulumente, amaziko ophando lwezenzululwazi kunye namashishini.

Okwangoku, iibhetri ze-lithium zihambela kwisizukulwana sesithathu emva kwezizukulwana ezibini ezidlulileyo ze-lithium cobalt oxide, i-lithium iron phosphate kunye ne-lithium ternary. Njengokuba ubuchwepheshe obuphambili kunye nelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza kwizizukulwana ezibini zokuqala zahlulwe ziinkampani zangaphandle, i-China ayinazibonelelo zaneleyo, kodwa inokuthi ikwazi ukuguqula imeko kwisizukulwana esilandelayo ngolwakhiwo lwakwangoko. Ngenxa yendlela yophuhliso lwamashishini yophando olusisiseko kunye nophuhliso, uphando lwesicelo kunye nophuhliso lwemveliso yezixhobo zebhetri, kufanelekile ukuba siyilungiselele imfazwe yexesha elide.

Kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba ukukhula kunye nokusetyenziswa kweebhetri ze-lithium e-China kusajamelene nemiceli mngeni emininzi. Umzekelo, kusetyenziso lwenene lwe-lithium ibhetri yezithuthi zamandla, kusekho iingxaki, ezinje ngokuxinana kwamandla ombane, ukusebenza ngamaqondo obushushu asezantsi, ixesha lokutshaja ixesha elide, ubomi benkonzo emfutshane njalo njalo.

Ukusukela nge-2019, i-China irhoxisile "uluhlu olumhlophe" lweebhetri, kwaye amashishini angaphandle anjengeLG kunye nePanasonic abuyele kwimakethi yaseTshayina, ngolwakhiwo olukhawulezayo kakhulu. Kwangelo xesha, ngoxinzelelo olwandayo kwiindleko zebhetri ye-lithium, ukhuphiswano kwintengiso yasekhaya luya lusiba namandla ngakumbi. Oku kuyanyanzela amashishini afanelekileyo ukuba azuze inzuzo kukhuphiswano olupheleleyo kunye nokusebenza okuphezulu kwexabiso lemveliso kunye nokukwazi ukuphendula ngokukhawuleza kwimakethi, ukuze kukhuthazwe ukukhula kunye nokukhula okuqhubekayo kwishishini lebhetri ye-lithium yase China.


Ixesha lokuposa: Mar-16-2021
Ngaba ujonge ulwazi oluthe kratya malunga neemveliso zobuchwephesha beDET kunye nezisombululo zamandla? Sineqela leengcali elikulungele ukukunceda rhoqo. Nceda ugcwalise le fomu kwaye ummeli wethu wentengiso uza kuqhagamshelana nawe kungekudala.